Today, on September, 4 - this day, 73 years ago, in 1930, the legendary representative of the world of travel, zamecha telnyj
the researcher, writer Vladimir Arsenyev has died. It would be
desirable to tell about this great person - the inquisitive selector,
the reliable wanderer, the tempered traveller, the officer and the
organizer but when you start to talk to somebody about Arsenyev it
appears much, that at each person the image of this person - and why it
has developed, not everyone will explain - " somehow has by itself left
and all! " And the answer is - so variously and many-sidedly made by
him, its researches, and the main thing - its books, reports on
expeditions are so universal, are filled with such diverse directions
of idea, that each person finds something for itself and on this
direction of ideas builds an image Arsenyev in soul!
It seems to much, that creativity and Vladimir Klavdievicha's heritage is exhausted completely, processed, zafiksirvoano,
"not fulfilled" almost, but it is far - far from being so! Till now
still somewhere Arsenyev's five uncompleted books, and among them
special work - " the Book of the traveller " are latent in any
archives. Invaluable experience really an extreme survival in ussurijskoj to a taiga most likely already during Great Domestic war skrytno
has been advanced for special divisions and consequently till now -
automatically, somehow - remains forbidden. And for our brother - hodoka and splavshchika
- those lines would be now as if revelation: how it with a command of
strelkov-tell-tales, with such equipment, and is more true - with its
absence - has sustained so much routes, thousand kilometers, on an
impassable, wild, uninhabited taiga? And not simply to pass, and to
fulfil, remove, thus, the detailed scheme - a basis of a card of area,
to get acquainted and describe local residents who will be met, to
collect collection samples - ethnographic and natural, to describe
vegetation, fauna, geology, to photograph! At last, to write down,
while it is fresh! - on a route, pages of a diary - the future book!
In it, Vladimir Arsenyev's special character than also this person is
favourite and valuable. Though the biography, becoming of a legend "
", have begun during imperial time, but the traveller has strongly
grown and in ours - the Soviet epoch, time ruthless and terrible! And
if it has died in 1930 it is necessary for the God to pray that there
was no for it a terrible 1937 and Kolyma as such destiny has got to the
wife and Arsenyev's descendants. And in this pain the our today's
attention to the traveller demands special experience and attention!
I offer you clause of Doctor of Philology Sergey Krivshenko from
Vladivostok - in it it is compressed the basic historical problem
theses connected with Vladimir Arsenyev's heritage are submitted. But
if you will type in search system www.mail.ru a name of the great
researcher and the writer receive set of remarkable modern works of
historians which more and more add paints to a unfading portrait of our
Eugeny the CALM
VLADIMIR KLAVDIEVICH ARSENYEV AND ITS CREATIVE HERITAGE
4 September, 1930 in Vladivostok the remarkable Russian traveller,
the researcher of the Far East, the ethnographer and writer Vladimir
Klavdievich Arsenyev has died. It has finished the life, not having
lived up to the 58-anniversary seven days (Arsenyev of 29.08 (10.09)
1872 was born). Only 58 years, and what trace on the ground!
... How many time it was at edge of destruction, how many time broke through ussurijskie a jungle, passed a bog, submitted tops insuperable, apparently, Sihote-Alinja,
how many time suffered from deprivations of a camp life - and came out
the winner. At once we shall tell, that Arsenyev - the traveller never
postponed itself from those people which have gone a beside, not time blagoda ril them for self-denying work. And especially, certainly, allocated a role of conductor Dersu Uzala
which captivating image has immortalized in the book. Owing to
Arsenyev's works - and it both the geographer, and the ethnographer,
and the historian, ussurijsky the edge from " terra inkognito
", territories unknown, has turned in known, investigated, native. And
at once we shall not forget, that it did not count itself(himself) the
first researcher of edge, generously appreciating the predecessors. On
the Far East it has lead thirty years, and not only to Primorski Krai,
has visited both on Kamchatka, and on Kuriles, has made 12 big
expeditions (not including various sorts of business trips), proceeded
it up and down, was its pathbreaker...
It was a feat scientific. Not behind a magnificent table in a
study Arsenyev created the of a note: wrote them in marching conditions
when exasperated both a cold, and heat, both darkness komarinaja,
and famine, and illnesses, ink Froze, overcame weariness, but it wrote,
every day - about gone for this day. So its creative feat, a feat pisateljaputeshestvennika
began, and its books till now possess magic force of an attraction.
Them read, we shall not be afraid to tell, all over the world.
Yes, V.K.Arsenev - the original writer, and not simply the writer, and one of zamechatelnejshih
Russian writers-travellers. In the beginning there was a business. "
Travel - not easy and pleasant work, and the long, continuous and heavy
work undertaken in the name of the great purpose ", wrote
N.M.Przhevalsky. But not easy, but long and continuous heavy literary
work was same. And all - in the name of the great purpose. Even in BSE it is told, that Arsenyev " has created a new study of local lore direction in domestic nauchnohudozhestvennoj
to the literature ". Whether Arsenyev - the writer is required to prove
today, what? Read it all. And one of recent books and referred to
"Arsenev-writer", the author its Igor Kuzmichev, the book has left in
Leningrad in 1977. Read everything, but... It seems, publishing and a
jungle literaturovedcheskih canons
Arsenyev to the full yet has not overcome a jungle. Whether it in it
fault? Or quality of books? No. Here the same reason, about which else
during Pushkin times critic A.A.Bestuzhev-Marlinsky in the first review
of the Russian literature has told about the reasons of delay of
domestic literature: " Nebrezhenie
Russian about all domestic much to that promoted ". And A.S.Pushkin has
told about the same: " we are lazy and uninteresting ". But also it,
certainly, an explanation incomplete. During various times for ways of
development of literature there were disastrous obstacles. Here again.
Long years Arsenyev's many materials contained in various spetshranah
and were inaccessible to publications, for research. During our vague
times - it is not better: Russian wood is even more often spent for
paper production of low-standard property. In summary - and Arsenyev in
a full kind has not reached yet the reader..
Clause about Arsenyev in BSE
at all positive estimation of its creativity nevertheless obviously
gave the representation underestimated about it up to any " the Study
of local lore direction ". Though in this clause A.M.Gorkogo's known
response about the writer who has united in Brema
and Cooper also is resulted. Arsenyev is named " the Soviet researcher
of the Far East " as though its basic expeditions have not passed to
the pre-october period. How to name simply " the Russian researcher "?
It is not specified in BSE one of
Arsenyev's the most significant editions - its book " In a jungle of
edge Ussurijskogo " (1926), the reduced variant of the two first books.
And in " the Literary encyclopedia ", let out in days of
"reorganization" (1987) and that it is worse:
The first book " On edge Ussurijskomu " (1921), let alone earlier
publications of sketches and stories is not specified even. The
constant mess occurs to date of a birth of Arsenyev. Almost in all
popular works (N.Rogalja, I.Kuzmicheva, etc.) is named date on August,
29, 1872, without the instruction, that it on old style. In
V.Guminskogo's interesting book
Date of a birth is transferred for a month - on September, 29, 1872 - obvious opiska,
but what to the reader! This year 65 years are executed from the date
of death of the writer (on September, 4, 1930). Time, apparently,
sufficient to define a place of the writer-traveller in the Russian
literature of XX century. To the literature of any people such name
would make honour - recollect, by the way, as appreciated the
literature of travel of L.N.Tolstoj, including products of writers -
zemleprohodtsev and morehodov in a
circle of children's reading. But try to find not that that a page, and
even a line about Arsenyev, as the writer, in high school textbooks of
history of the Russian literature of XX century.
Only in an epilogue of the book under edition prof. P.S.Vyhodtseva we find one line: Up to Kimonko " have opened udege
V.Arsenev and A.Fadeev " (with 585). And words it is more - in one
university textbook. I read the newest program of history of the
Russian literature of XX century (the Moscow State University, 1994) -
certainly, as well as in old programs Arsenyev's name is not mentioned
at all. Here to you and " association Brema and Fenimora Cooper "...
What turns out? Arsenyev read as the original writer, and to our schoolboys,
It at all is not offered to students. Whether it nebrezhenie to, native! Or its destiny only in the so-called regional literature - alas, V.K.Arsenyev's creativity poorly
It is submitted in remarkable work of the Siberian scientists " Sketches of the Russian literature of Siberia "
(1982). Here we shall tell, for many years V.G.Puzyreva's interesting works, .Azadovskogo
are written, to N.E.Kabanova, I.S.Kuzmicheva, N.V.Starovojtova,
V.M.Guminskogo. There is a number of dissertations (for example,
V.K.Putolovoj's dissertation " V.K.Arsenev and its literary activity
Has not appeared books about the writer in series ZHZL though about its predecessor N.M.Przhevalskom the book in series ZHZL
has appeared at the end of XIX century, in 1891 - as is known, this
library publisher O.Pavlenkov (has based it then, in the thirtieth
years series ZHZL
Have attributed to A.M.Gorkogo's name).
So than it is nice, the founder of " a study of local lore direction " as the writer? Really
Only this regional beginning? Also what " the study of local lore
direction " means? And unless not it, Arsenyev, has drawn a unique
figure golda Dersu Uzala,
a figure which sees at all only on a background of books of study of
local lore character, but also on a background of world fiction of
travel is simply proletarian writer, and the big Russian artist Bitter
has well caught Bitter, as though and who now did not concern to it,
Arsenyev began from road. It became the traveller and almost at once -
in the records - the writer. Special gift - art was for this purpose at
it. To the Far East it has arrived in the summer of 1900 - from capital
Petersburg. Also has lived here thirty years. Has lived a life of the
devotee, the patriot. Not time making of a vital choice, was spoken by
it about the big human ideals, about the purpose which is capable to
carry away human soul. " Really in a pursuit of gold and of laurels it
is possible to put the advantage, honour, interests of a society,
interests of a science, interests of Russia on a card?! Sadly, very
sadly! Not such way extracts laurels! Persistent and fair work is
necessary modest, but! " (т.6, with 240). Interests of Russia,
interests of a science - without it are not present either honour, or
advantage. We shall recollect also, that it was the military person,
and much did for protection of the state interests of the country - the
captain, and then colonel Arsenyev... On its this accessory to old
Russian, imperial army not time will play its disgraceful foes,
including from literary circles... Certainly, the break of a national
life was for it tragedy, and it has especially felt it after
destruction in Ukraine, in the Chernigov province from hands of
gangsters of father, Claudia Fedorovicha, and sisters, nephews -
history which demands clearing.
But unless it was thought of the worse? And those years Arsenyev has made the main choice. In March 1917
Year it have sent in structure of 13-th Siberian shooting a shelf in a field army, on
The German front. But Russian Geographical society managed to defend "
unique in the world of expert Ussurijskogo on edge... " It has been
appointed by the commissioner on inorodcheskim
to affairs of edge Priamurskogo, dismissed from military service,
determined in " collegiate advisers ". In created conditions when
nobody carried out any decrees, Arsenyev has soon refused purpose. It
has refused and from other offer - to leave Russia, to emigrate abroad.
" I - Russian, - have answered it, - Worked and I work for people.
There is no need me to go abroad " (tsit. On: Kuzmichev
I.Arsenev-pisatel., with 140) Arsenyev has remained, on the Native land
And in the twentieth years has made new expeditions, and the main thing
has issued books of sketches "Amba" and dr
(1920), the travelling narrations. It printed diaries and earlier, in
newspapers, but here diaries were transformed to original books. First
of all in its plan there was a trilogy about three main expeditions of
the beginning of XX century: 1902-1906, 1907, 1908-1910: owing to these
expeditions the edge Ussurijsky was open for a science. Arsenyev
managed to let out in Vladivostok two books about the two first travel
- from three conceived. Here exact names of these books under which
they have left originally. The first book: " On edge Ussurijskomu (Dersu Uzala). Travel to mountain area "Sikhote Alin" (Vladivostok, "Echo", 1921). The book the second. " Dersu Uzala From memoirs on travel on edge Ussurijskomu in 1907 Vladivostok ", izd
companies " Free Russia ", 1923. At reprinting these books usually wise
editors cleaned subtitles: colour not only time, but also genre
searches of the writer disappeared.
And the Third book of the conceived trilogy during lifetime of the
writer and has not left. She has been published in 1937 under the name
" In mountains Sihote-Alinja ", with the instruction, that work "
represents itself a diary of Century To Arsenyev, advanced by him
shortly before its death for a press, but still finally the author not
edited ". The book has been devoted to the most difficult, so-called,
anniversary expedition (1908-1910) devoted to the 50-anniversary of
conclusion Amgunskogo of the contract of Russia with China. In this expedition ridge Sihote-Alinja has been overcome seven times. People got in extreme conditions, were on voloske
from destruction... Arsenyev some times wrote, that the third book is
available to the publication in 1917. Then promised to print her in the
middle of the twentieth years, but on any circumstances the book and
has not left during lifetime of the writer. The latent drama! By the
way, in 1924 the first of Arsenyev's named books has been transferred
to German language and has left in Berlin.
As is known, the two first books have been reduced by the author, " are
adapted to schools and the mass reader " and are published in 1926г. in
Vladivostok - under the name " In a jungle of edge Ussurijskogo " (this
book has been sent to M. Prishvinym of A.M.Gorkomu to Italy).
Arsenyev as it is seen, considered these books in close coordination. It spoke about the third book
More and more. So, on January, 4, 1928 it wrote A.M.Gorkomu: " Now I write one more
The book " In mountains Sihote-Alinja " which is continuation " In a jungle of edge Ussurijskogo ".
Here she, arsenevskaja
an idea on the trilogy. So, following a plan of the writer, for a long
time it would be time to issue these three books under one general name
" In a jungle of edge Ussurijskogo ". But publishers usually let out
only two first, and literary critics have declared the third book
unfinished, weak, etc. But it is far from being so. The trilogy " In a
jungle of edge Ussurijskogo " - a creative feat of the writer of the
traveller found the original form of books-travel. Two of them are
directly incorporated by one hero - Dersu Uzala (not sluchaen the subtitle of the first and heading of the second, in third book Dersu
is absent: by time of the third expedition it was lost, the writer has
said goodbye to it in the second book). But also here, in the third
book where Dersu does not operate, there is spirit Dersu Uzala, lessons Dersu,
light of its person. And all these three books are incorporated by the
hero the story-teller, the traveller, the storyteller. All is covered
by the moral attitude to the world - both to the nature, and people -
The book of travelling diaries of the author adjoins to ledgers during
expedition on a route from the Soviet Harbour up to Khabarovsk
accomplished by Arsenyev in 1927-1928. It was last big travel, Arsenyev
has passed on novel hitherto to places. The name of the book: " Through
a taiga " (1930).
Event of a literary and scientific life was the edition in post-war years in Vladivostok shestitomnika
Arsenyev's compositions. It was the fullest. In the same place the
assumption that the new, fuller collected works will soon take place
also has been stated.
But, unfortunately, it has not taken place. And the edition of the
fortieth years bears on itself many costs of those years: forewords Are
reduced, many are thrown out the chapter, something podredaktirovano...
We Shall tell, Arsenyev thanked governor Umterbergera for the big help
of expedition, it, certainly, is cut. Arsenyev writes, that its many
arrows were lost in fights for the Native land on the German front of
1-st world - words about the Native land are deleted: what else there
can be a Native land, proletarians do not have fatherland. Arsenyev
gives heading to the chapter: " Christmas holidays ". It is corrected
for " Winter holidays ", etc. But to honour of publishers of
"compositions", here have managed to overcome a uncooperative altitude
to Arsenyev which was imposed during lifetime of the writer, and
especially in the thirtieth years. Then this page - pravli
the writer, certainly, could not be covered. But presently new
publications in which it is told about drama and tragical pages of a
life of the writer have appeared. Extreme persecution has amplified at
the end of 20th years. Arsenyev rushes between Vladivostok and
Khabarovsk. One time even arises an idea to leave for Leningrad, to
work in a museum. But this idea then is rejected: early on room
conditions, attract new campaigns. Character such. Persecution
conducted for Arsenyev's, ostensibly, racist, profascist belief, "
great-power contempt " for foreigners (it is the founder of image Dersu Uzala),
and that " it considered below the advantage " to tell about simple
soldiers... " Arsenyev, - broadcast the author of the foreword to the
book " On edge Ussurijskomu " certain Volynsk, - was not in essence the
scientific geographer, the ethnographer, the geologist, etc. It was
only the courageous, tireless traveller and the cheerful artist of a
word " (with 8). And again " essential defects ", "mistakes",
finding-out " Arsenyev's class person ". That, as the poet has told, "
this handwriting of a critical hand is familiar to us. To correct
eyebrowes wants, and will prick out pupils ". By the way, then similar
slanderers have begun the hysterical campaign against M.Sholohova,
against its ingenious " Silent Don ", and today already and continuers
"violent" were and anywhere - nibud - they are printed on pages of "
the New world ": about, Soleri! You are alive, kurilka...
And in a local press of the scientist have presented the boor, the
patriot - the chauvinist. That there is one name of clause of G.Yefimov
" In To Arsenyev as the spokesman of idea of great-power chauvinism ".
It is not less rage and concerning " arsenevskoj a theme " in creativity of other writers.
Arsenyev could not read all these slanderous navety any more. It still would stand itself(himself) But whether without influence of these rusofobskih
voices and supporting voices Arsenyev's family have dispelled in the
thirtieth years in a camp dust? Twice (all over again in 1934, and then
in 1937) The wife of writer Margarita Nikolaevna has been arrested. Has
lost health in camps the daughter of writer Natasha Arsenyev. Brother
Arsenyev has been subjected to repression and was lost. Veins stynut
when you read new documents on it (them were published by the
journalist In Scanty and historian-regional specialist A.Hisamutdinov).
Secret became obvious. Wife Arsenyev, scientific the employee,
Margarita Nikolaevnu have accused of shpionsko-harmful activity. And
the chapter of the organization, it appears, its husband of Century To
Arsenyev was. The closed judicial session of visiting session of
Military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR has taken place on
August, 21, 1938. It proceeded 10 minutes. And the destiny of the woman
has been solved. The military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR
has sentenced to Arsenyev Margarita Nikolaevnu to the maximum measure
of criminal punishment - to execution with confiscation of all
personally to it of belonging property. " The verdict final and on the
basis of the decision of the Central Electoral Committee of the USSR
from December, 1 1934г. is subject to immediate execution ".
Margarita Nikolaevnu have shot. Daughter Natasha, Natalia Vladimirovna,
has lead long years in camps. She, seventeen-year-old, has remained
without native, without means of subsistence. Has married, its husband
has been subjected to repression. The child has died. Her arrest twice
and stop affairs. Has again married - the seaman of Far East shipping
company. In April 1941г. - the husband withdraw on military retraining,
and her arrest. And on a fast hand slepleno
the conclusion: counterrevolutionary propaganda. " Arsenyev, being it
is hostilely adjusted to the Soviet authority, distributed among
citizens anti-soviet chauvinistic jokes (and it is written, is spoken
in V.Kutsego's publication " Without a limitation period ". The seaside
journalist, 1989, N 3) ". Ten years of imprisonment. She will return
from camps, but health will be undermined. In 1973. Natalia has died,
by then she has been rehabilitated. Its mother, Margarita Nikolaevna
has been rehabilitated also.
By the way, in 1937, in the same years when there was rasstreljana
wife Arsenyev, in Moscow publishing house " Young guards " the book "
In mountains Sihote-Alinja " has been issued. The validity is absurd!
Whether it is possible to assert today, what the manuscript has got in
that kind in what she made ready for the press Arsenyev? Why the sketch
" the Winter campaign on the river Hungari ", being logic end of the
description of a campaign of 1908-1910, is published not in the book,
And where the manuscript of the book "Country Udehe" has disappeared?
Arsenyev spoke about it: " This monography - the purpose of my life ".
And the manuscript of the book " the Theory and practice of the
traveller " - she too has completely disappeared? And its letters? In
E.D.Petrjaeva's opinion, In K.Arsenyev monthly wrote 35-40 letters.
Units are published. Where the others? In archives? And whether it is time to make them property also
The reader? All these questions not time sounded and sound on arsenevskih conferences. " Scientific
The importance of works In To Arsenyev is still insufficiently appreciated ", - spoke on the first rsenevskih
Readings in Khabarovsk J.V.Maretin. Arsenyev as the historian - that we
know about it? And the literary importance? Unless it is possible to
estimate her, not having enough full, verified
Texts of the writer!
Special question - correspondence In To Arsenyev from A.M.Gorkim. It
was accepted to submit this correspondence in iridescent light, it
turned out, that Bitter almost blagoslavil
Arsenyev on its literary work. Now someone writes ironically supposedly
a place in forewords has unfairly borrowed a response "authoritative"
Bitter. But we shall not be hasty and unfair. To Arsenyev, especially
in that conditions rappovskih swoops, zaushatelskih
charges, Gorki support was necessary, and it was inspired with a high
estimation of the book " In a jungle of edge Ussurijskogo "...
Bitter has noticed image Dersu Uzala. But in our opinion, in the subsequent letters Bitter it is a lot of
Was annoying for Arsenyev testifying, that it appeared is hard of hearing to creativity
The writer - dalnevostochnika. The problem is imposed to Arsenyev to
write or organize clause about our "achievements", to create the
collection about achievements of the Far East. Bitter in one of letters
it is justified, that has not forgotten Arsenyev though year did not
answer it without a reminder almost.
It was annoying to Arsenyev, and it has expressed the disappointment in
the letter: " you, probably, have already forgotten me. " Here is above
what to think seriously.
Today the problem " the person and the nature " became global. Whether
it is possible to do without here Arsenyev? The TV and publishing
houses has brought down on the spectator an avalanche americanized
Literatures. Its hero - the superman. It - above people. The type human tnoshenii is modelled
Under the law of jungle. Here the novel for women: it leaves at us in a
series of " the best American ladies' novels ". In the center - the
hero the superman sheriff Barret. The heroine at first sight obvorozhena him. "... At Samanty has literally drooped a jaw. Cannot be, that it was it.
Sheriff Barret worked with its father, it was more ten years ago. It exterminated wild
Animals and traitors - Indians " (Susan Elizabeth " Awakening of passion "). What it
Is called to waken passions? Whether it is possible to present similar tone in narrations
Arsenyev?! Arsenyev, drawing attitudes of the Russian captain-traveller to Dersu Uzala, to
To other people of a wood tribe, solves a problem about which the Lion Thick in due time wrote
To well-known traveller Mikluho-Maklay: " How to live to people with
each other ". How to make, that the civilization has not destroyed in
the person all natural, natural, has not made its enemy of the nature?
Arsenyev possessed, and it in many respects has learned this at Dersu Uzala, feeling of the nature. These arsenevskie lessons of morals so are duly today.
So, Arsenyev - the founder of a regional direction, the writer-regional specialist and all?
When Arsenyev's books have been issued in 20th years abroad, its German publisher wrote: " I
It is happy, that, having taken up the edition of immortal work of V.K.Arsenyev abroad, could
To apply though a share of the work on showing all light of great Russian
The researcher, whose works already now have got for Russian people
many new foreign friends and certainly have great future ". Here so
Arsenyev for people worked.
Who from our contemporaries can repeat these words today, not being
afraid to run into exaggerations? Many will not be solved, as have not
dared to enter even in minor
Writers authors of all high school textbooks under the Russian literature of XX century.
Krivshenko S.F. the professor, Doctor of Philology
http: // www.vld.ru/ppx/Krivsh/Arsenev.htm