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Bikin: heart ussurijskoj a taiga
The text: Konstanitin Mihajlov
Photos: Jury Shibnev, Konstantin Mihajlov, Vladimir Medvedev
Kol-in perusals / viewings: 4049
The version for a press

For the ground located to the south from Amur and to the east from Ussuri, for a long time the beautiful name "edge Ussurijsky" also was strongly fixed. In the West she borders on the Chinese Manchuria, in an extreme southwest Ч with Northern Korea; from the east and its south wash waters of sea of Japan. Three big rivers - Chorus, Bikin and Iman, gathered force in mountains Sihote-Alinja, bear the waters on the West, to Ussuri. On this way they pass hundreds kilometers through filled up kolodnikom and perevitye lianes a jungle of a taiga where there live the Amur tigers, the Himalaya bears and Ђ wood people ї Ч hunters - udege. The river Bikin Ч last big island of virgin woods which XXI century has signed the death sentence through a guillotine of commercial cuttings down. If not zapovedat Bikin, from the person of the ground the taiga on which conducted its Arsenyev's group true gold Dersu Uzala can soon disappear legendary ussurijskaja.

Bikin Ч Ђ Russian Amazon ї, on the average current. A photo Ч Konstanitin Mihajlov.
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Average Bikin in the autumn. A photo Ч Konstanitin Mihajlov.
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Root of a ginseng. A photo Ч Jury Shibnev.
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Leaf fall on Bikine. A photo Ч Konstanitin Mihajlov.
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The big turtle-dove on a jack. A photo Ч Jury Shibnev.
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Oshejnikovaja sovka. A photo Ч Jury Shibnev.
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Green kvakva Ч the representative of tropics. A photo Ч Jury Shibnev.
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Goltsy Sihote-Alinja, mountain To. A photo Ч Konstanitin Mihajlov.
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Duck - mandarinka Ч the most beautiful duck in the world. A photo Ч Jury Shibnev.
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Stone shchitomordnik - a unique adder of edge Ussurijskogo. A photo Ч Jury Shibnev.
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Dlinnohvostyj a bullfinch (uragus) Ч "popugajchik" ussurijskoj the grounds. A photo Ч Jury Shibnev.
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Blue forty. A photo Ч Jury Shibnev.
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Small perepeljatnik on a jack. A photo Ч Jury Shibnev.
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Orchid kalipso. A photo Ч Konstanitin Mihajlov.
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Subtropical wood on Bikinu. A photo Ч Konstanitin Mihajlov.
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Ussurijskaja a taiga: kedrachi with a rhododendron. A photo Ч Konstanitin Mihajlov.
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In mountains Sihote-Alinja, on June, 12 after a snowfall. A photo Ч Konstanitin Mihajlov.
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Taiga small river, inflow Bikina. A photo Ч Konstanitin Mihajlov.
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Holiday udegejtsev in a settlement Red JAr. A photo Ч Jury Shibnev.
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When armies of CHingis-khan have wiped out cities and ports chzhurchzhenej, to the east from the river Ussuri for some centuries the empire of the wild nature was established. Reminding tropical jungle mnogojarusnye jasenevo-ilmovye woods and shady kedrachi have covered valleys of the rivers, hills and low mountains, and in an empire of greens the civilization has disappeared ancient bokhajskaja. Descendants saved in a taiga chzhurchzhenej Ч udege and nanai - steel Ђ wood people ї, living near to tigers and bears on coast of the salmon rivers at night disclosed by loud shouts of a fish eagle owl. On a variety of flora and fauna these woods have no equal in the north of Asia, but also they are only an echo of those riches which we would see in Priussure in dolednikovoe time when thermophilic hornbeams here grew, chestnuts, beeches, a magnolia and dzelkva alongside with gingko, sekvojami and marsh cypresses. From that ancient turgajskoj florae as call its paleobotany, have remained jasene-ilmovye woods with a manchurian nut and the Amur velvet, and also kustarnikovye and grassy relicts from families aralievyh, sumahovyh, padubovyh.

During postglacial time the north and the south of Asia have collided at breadth Bikina and Imana in an improbable combination of forms. A ginseng and eleuterokokk grow here side by side with kislitsej and a labrador tea; an ash, a velvet and a nut Ч with a fir, a fur-tree and a cedar. Lianes Ч limonnik and aktinidii Ч twist trunks of white birches. Harius, lenok and tajmen mechut caviar in one rivers with Indian zmeegolovom, and on kosah the same river the Chinese spineless turtle postpones in fine gravel eggs. In the same wood live a tiger and a lynx; an elk, izjubr and a spotty deer; brown and Himalaya bears. On coast of one river gnezdjatsja the Chinese duck mandarinka and northern duck kamenushka. Night bark dlinnohvostoj nejasyti pereklikaetsja with uhanem iglonogoj owls. Such interlacing of the south and the north more is not present anywhere on the Euroasian continent.

Long and tuponosaja udegejskaja the boat winds on the dark channels Bikina bordered "mangrami" ivnjaka. From the Top Pass where once stood Chinese hunhuzy and Arsenyev, going down on horses lengthways Bikina, for the first time has allowed a command to uncover carbines, up to Red JAra, upwards on the river about eighty kilometers. Hundred more Ч upwards up to a meteorological station Spring, and as much up to absorbed by a taiga, the left settlement Lauhe. Therefrom hundred more up to tiny settlement Hunting where Bikin collects waters of the basic inflows Ч Bochelazy, Ulungi, Pharunxes and Kilou. From Ulungi up to most verhovy Bikina under goltsami Ђ white mountains ї Koenini two hundred more kilometers. Above mouth Kilou now seldom who rises Ч will not save enough to gasoline and will not break through stale zalomy. The river Ч unique road is higher Red JAra. In sources Bikina in general nobody was Ч here, in the taiga remote places hidden among mountain fir groves Sihote-Alinja the leg of the person did not go.

The local rivers do not have coast, and it seems, that water flows straight through a wood. Past crones of the ashes washed away by the river are carried by; towards are floating picked up by current huge ilmy and a poplar. Spreading crones still green, and powerful vzdyblenye komli are full of a soil life. Earlier on the river went on shestah, overcoming current. Now the boat is pulled with the motor, but, as before, on a nose there is a person with the sixth. Otherwise you will not squeeze through gaps in zalomah. Today I for nosovogo. At occurrence of a boat with soft krjakanem fly up fed at coast mandarinki, with the Japanese figurines balance at tops of trees of a heron. Not having sustained, it is broken from top of a dry cedar skopa. The emerald halcyon is from time to time carried by above water, without fault kuliki-carriers ring on trunks sticking out of water. On the next bend of a boat from a current six are broken graceful dlinnokljuvyh ducks, and, having built in a number, run upwards on the river with speed of a boat, helping itself wings on which bright white "mirror" is visible. These are scaly krohali Ч one of the rare kinds of a waterfowl in the world, kept basically on Bikine, Chorus and Imane. Having passed Spring, we turn in smelling sweet as blossoming wild apple-trees to channel Niolo and, not reaching up to zaloma, we stick to all right cut out ohotnichej izbushke on one of islands Bikina. Having dissolved on coast of the river kosterok, we wait for full darkness. Then "zapljumkaet" ussurijskaja sovka, and calmed izjubr will plunge completely in a channel much to gorge on "zelenki", and above the lunar path hardly shining dark jets bikinskih of waters, perhaps, it will be carried by powerful "buuuuu". And again, is shorter on repetition, "buu". So the fish eagle owl Ч a mysterious bird prirechnyh a jungle of edge Ussurijskogo shouts. To hear it many dreamed. Saw its night hunting unit.

With me at a fire Jury Shibnev. It has grown on Bikine, among udygejskih boys, together with them pricked ostrogoj a fish with omorochki, hunted on ducks. Then there was the photographer, the master of photohunting on rare and skrytnyh animals, whether it be a Far East leopard, a black crane or iglonogaja an owl. One of the first it has found jacks of a fish eagle owl, having photographed a life of a huge owl. Today we with it again search for a jack of this rare bird.

The third day drizzles. Trunks of trees are covered with bright wood mushrooms. Fur-trees and a fir entirely in businkah waters. With a crash fall washed away by the river huge, in three-four grasp, poplar Maksimovicha. Steljushchijsja above water the fog transforms fallen trees in illusive mnogorukih monsters. Nikolay Tsybko Ч the hunter from settlement Ulunga, knows Bochelazu for sure, soboleval here many years. With it you will not lose the way. The sixth day we in a deaf taiga, on a way to Arsenyev's top, one of main goltsov on nehozhennom a watershed of Chorus and Bikina. The hunter lives in taiga raspadkah. On gaping in the distance above a wood goltsah it nothing it. Ђ Children of a taiga ї did not go to mountains udegejtsy even, in fact on belief of ancestors on covered with tundra and a stone goltsah malicious spirits live.

Bochelaza Ч one of main inflows Bikina in its average current. The hunting track is dim water, is filled up with fallen trees. On them it is frequently seen pomet large samtsov sables. Behind trunks of fur-trees the dark silhouette kabargi twice flashes Ч "saber-toothed" olenyok leaves easily and silently, on long and high jumps. Places protected entirely in a windbreak. It is necessary to go zigzags on galechnikovomu to a channel, the blessing here is superficial. Twelve of fifteen measured at date of kilometers it is gone, but the sun obstinately goes to horizon. Entsefalitki wet from a rain and sweat, raincoats and "bolotniki" are torn. Forces on an outcome. Somewhere a number should be next izbushka. Really, is, its bear only has slightly destroyed by bombing. Up to darkness remains no more hour so it is necessary to set quickly a door, to tighten pieces of polythene an empty eye-socket of a window and to put on a place a tin pipe of a small stove. After a kettle of porridge and two kruzhek hot tea again I ask Nikolay about tigers. All the same amba Ч a symbol ussurijskoj a taiga, and pool Bikina Ч one of the basic refuges of an animal in edge Ussurijkom. Here them not less than fifty.

It is possible to live in a taiga some years, and not having seen a tiger. Very much ostrozhen this animal Ч not a couple to a bear. The tiger sees you and hears, easy goes for you Ч is curious, and you only find out its fresh traces following own. Dogs the attack on the person for it Ч eats with pleasure therefore their hunters and do not hold, but the phenomenon exclusive. There is it usually only in that case when the animal is wounded. Unfortunately, the poachers hunting on tigers, today suffices. A skin Ч the goods road though also illegal, and all is told by it. With a bear it is more complex. A unpredictable animal, inattentive, and you go with it the same roads so, one never knows, you will collide it on a track face to face. But besides, if you will cry, warning, as a rule, the bear makes way for the first. Aggression of "beet" Ч the convenient justification for the hunter. In fact the bear is "spleen", and demand for it at Chinese is not less, than on "iron" kabargi and a root of a ginseng. In the Chinese medicine everything so both frogs, and tadpoles already bear through boundary "prickle" bags Е is used To speak on taiga themes with hunters it is possible indefinitely. But ahead two more days of a way on most verhovjam Bochelazy up to tiny a beam on approaches to Arsenyev's mountain. Tomorrow again in a way Ч in the damp entsefalitkah, the torn boots and raincoats, under metal trills of dark blue nightingales and rzhanie a nightingale - svistuna. Under hysterical shouts shirokokryloj cuckooes. So we try to fall asleep under fraction of a rain in slightly crumpled clumsy izbushke in hope, that Ђ the owner of a taiga ї will not disturb us at this night.

Alexander Barylnika's hunting site is located between two inflows Ulungi, on the south almost up to basic ridge Sihote-Alinja. The ring route on perimeter of a site borrows seven days provided that to go every day all day long, spending the night in hunting zimovjah. Izbushka Ч a fortress of the hunter. Here a warehouse of products, cartridges, the tool and all necessary for emergency spending the night during a long winter season sobolevki. Zimove can be big, meters seven on five. Ordinary beams are smaller than time in two, one and a half-two height. Especially you will not be developped. Inside all is simple: dug into the ground at an input a small stove, a small little table and plank beds "corner" that two could go in. The third lozhitsja under plank beds. Us Ч three. Except for me and Barylnika, Ч Eugeny Koblik, the ornithologist and an associate in my wanderings on Bikinu. And all three have got wet Ч we run from a monsoon the third day. Brings down pairs from shtormovok above a hot oven, and behind a wall waters, as from a bucket. The equipment should be born for a door, under kozyrek izbushki. There too absolute humidity, but nevertheless not a bath. In Primorski Krai with optics always you risk a little. Ђ Here the mould sprouts through objectives ї, Ч Jury Shibnev who has finished shooting the most part of flora and fauna of edge Ussurijskogo jokes of this account. Having had a meal and having got drunk strong to tea, we stick spoons in a crack of a ceiling and we hang up circles on vbitye in walls nails.

Barylnik in a taiga for a long time. It from those guys, that nachitalis in the childhood of stories about Canadian trapperah Ч about a life among Indians, about friendship with beavers and wolves, about overcoming counter to destiny and circumstances. Also have dared to leave for ever vain charm of a civilization. Not all appeared so romantically as it is written in books, but difficulties and have sufficed Ђ overcoming of ї with interest. Now in a taiga with the hunter both its sons. Fry flat cakes, guard traps, clean putiki. School examinations challenge a course of once a year in Red JAru. There will be untouched a taiga Ч will stay in it and tayozhniki. Next morning we break through filled up kolodnikom a fir grove and again we appear between Central Russian berezok. Here, on a valley of small river Fugou, the fire which has destroyed a coniferous wood has once walked. Such places were loved by the conservatives who have come from the sea. Here it was easier to root out and plough. Upwards on small river one of the most well-known solontsov Sihote-Alinja. Natural solontsy are frequently shown in verhovjah small rivers where mineral waters leave through radical breed, spread pools, are besieged as salutary glin-zeolites. As the magnet is drawn to themselves with such places of animals, by centuries the blazed tracks here are pulled. It is those and solonets in verhovjah Fugou. All here is trampled by wild beasts Ч elks, izjubrem, kosulej, kabargoj. For kopytnymi bears, gluttons, wolves are pulled. In adjournment of white clay meter holes are visible Ч they are gnawed out by elks. You are surprised both to mighty forces of the nature, and mutual force of an instinct and a habit, centuries collecting here animals from the removed areas of mountains.

From Khabarovsk up to a mountain plateau in verhovjah Bikina the helicopter flies one and a half hour. Under the screw float valleys of Amur and Chorus and at last the panorama snow-covered Sihote-Alinja opens. We leave in the Hunting two person, we take away a hunter-conductor and we fly further. We take the bearings marked on a card izbushku and as soon as the helicopter "squats" above surburb of a bog, we throw out on a snow backpacks, bales and boxes with products. The national geographical society of the USA has supported our researches in this area of Asia, and we should live more than month among nehozhennoj a taiga, in full removal from people and without communication with them. Mountain plateaus Sihote-Alinja Ч the main regulator of a water-drain of all edge Ussurijskogo. Ancient woods from ajanskoj fur-trees catch a moisture going from ocean, besiege her and store in marjah Ч sfagnovyh bogs, giving the rivers as required beginning in mountains Ч to inflows of Ussuri and Amur. Destruction of fir groves will lead to flooding, floodings of settlements and destruction of an inundated wood on the average and the bottom current of the rivers. On mountain marjah and in a taiga gnezdjatsja krasnoknizhnye kinds of birds, the bear, an elk fill the number a sable, kabarga, a lynx. Here chased of kedrachej the tiger quite often comes. Here powerful natural solontsy and ancient tracks kochyovok animals from one system of the river in another. All this will disappear, if woodcutters here will come. We should show people surprising nature Sihote-Alinja to convince them to interfere with pernicious cabins.

Despite of a snow, black cranes already on jacks, and on progalah among fur-trees, absolutely near to us, tokujut samtsy dikushi. In the clear frosty mornings on surburb listvennichnikov knock Ч castanets? - stone wood-grouses sing. Routine work of the ornithologist Ч and to birds at us special interest, includes daily accounts feathery on the laid wood routes. In three weeks of a larch put on in the gentle-green order, and in light forests and on goltsah begin to blossom rhododendrons. Dikushi and wood-grouses have finished tokovat, and in jacks of cranes nestlings have appeared. On sunrise with tundra goltsov the panorama Ч becoming of the world opens?: from clouds curling under us appear dark domes of woody tops Ч islands at ocean. A show unforgettable for the sake of which it is possible to undergo much. Ђ God forbid, if the person with an axe will come here. It will leave after itself(himself) desert ї, Ч Alexey Ivanovich Kurentsov, entomolog and zoogeograf, the continuer of an affair of Arsenyev has told once. As bitterly to understand it, words of the big naturalist come true. The person with an axe has broken to Sikhote Alin and destroys under a root that centuries was created by the nature. Cut varvarski, leaving after itself desert up to horizon as far as eyes suffice. There, where still the majestic elovo-fir wood, now the disfigured ground, vyvorochennye rhizomes and lonely masts of the dried out trunks yesterday was.

On a planet there was only a fifth part of its initial woods. We are deprived the most beautiful landscape of a planet. We are deprived gifts of a taiga. We are deprived a source of oxygen. Nothing receiving in exchange.

Tomorrow we begin descent to sea of Japan, approximately there where have gone Dersu Uzala and Arsenyev. Then again we shall rise on a plateau, we shall remove monstrous cabins on approaches to Bikinu, and, loaded with the finished shooting material, we shall be alloyed downwards to Bikinu on it priooku the Pharunx if only the bear or a glutton will not eat products and will not tear the rubber boats left in a taiga on a warehouse. And then, in eight days, projdja through a hell of the channel filled up with stones, we shall lay exhausted and wet in a never-ending drizzle of a monsoon and to wait, when for us will come marketable udegejskie boats that, at last, poparitsja in banke, to change clothes in all pure, to gorge on and sleep off. That will return for a while to a warm, cosy civilization. With us the diaries sealed - in in cellophane, a film, digital cartridges. On them an invaluable material Ч gnezdovja black cranes, tokujushchaja dikusha, unknown tops Sihote-Alinja, peripetias of our circulations on tracks Dersu Uzala.

House SHibnevyh in the Top Pass is located at the river under a hill called on cards Krutojar, and in people simply Verhneperevalskoj. From a hill the remarkable kind on sleeves Bikina lost in a green jungle of an inundated wood opens. To sit here and to look at the legendary river it is possible hours, especially in the mornings when steljushchijsja above water the fog slowly rises upwards, shrouding tops of trees. But now I sit not on a hill, and on a porch of lop-sided house SHibnevyh with polusgnivshim a flooring from boards before its facade. Near to me Ч the old, sick person with gray-haired bobrikom hair and quiet, close eyes. In them experience of the big and heavy life. Experience of wearisome struggle for the nature of edge. Ђ The white leader bikinskih udegejtsev ї as ljubovno Boris Konstantinovicha Shibneva's natives call, father Jury who has taught not one generation udegejtsev. Hardly someone better it understands all tragedy ussurijskoj a taiga, anybody is better than it will not tell about it.

When udegejtsev, living at the sea, the smallpox has tortured, they have passed through woody crests Sihote-Alinja and have seen under itself ocean of a taiga to which there was no neither the end, nor an edge. Captivated they looked on zmejku the rivers, winding among waves of tyomno-green hills. Then kabarozhimi and the bear tracks they have gone down downwards, through solemn gloomy woods from ajanskoj the fur-trees, decorated with beards of a moss and garlands of a lichen, overcoming on the way blockages and windbreaks and asking ambu Ч a tiger to not interfere with their promotion. Having gone down, they have found the Ђ the ground promised ї. Ђ Biki ї, on udegejski, Ђ the river current between mountains ї, but at the same time Ђ rich with an animal and a fish ї means. All as a whole, Ч Ђ the gold river ї, fine in every respect ї. Udegejtsy on Bikine lived in full harmony with the nature. The law of a measure which lived Dersu Uzala, was at them in blood. Take by nature so much, how many sesh and do not overlook to share with near. The city person has introduced here psychology of the consumer. Take, take and take. Take and sell until there will be nothing to take. Udegejskaja youth that before, and murder amby for them not an interdiction. From it also presses heart of the old teacher.

I take away in the heart its grief about Bikine. It and I Ч one blood. Both still Jury Shibnev. And still Sasha Barylnik. And hunter Nikolay Tsybko. And still pair tens people in Pass and JAru. But it is not enough of it. And we shall lose, if we will not be more.

Central Sikhote Alin, golets Sangeli on a watershed between the Mansion and Bikinom. A photo Ч Konstanitin Mihajlov.
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The sad picture is represented with the ground Ussurijskaja in the beginning of XXI century. Sad berezovo-aspen melkolese on a place once majestic kedrachej. Deserted masts of dry fur-trees and firs among open spaces of yesterday's commercial cuttings down on plateau Sihote-Alinja. Burnt up to blackness mari in a valley of Ussuri. The unique landscapes transformed in Ђ bedlendy roadsides of a civilization ї the person reasonable. Beside China, similarly to a black hole absorbing bioresources of edge. Among humiliated, exsanguinated, porugannoj the Far East nature Ч the big island ussurijskoj a taiga Ч Bikin around of which the ring of commercial cuttings down is compressed, and all javstvennej is heard noise of thousand power saws Е

On Bikine gnezditsja 10 kinds of the birds included in the Red book of the world and more of 20 kinds from the Red book of Russia. For mandarinki, scaly krohalja, a fish eagle owl and a black crane, as well as for the Amur tiger, Bikin Ч one of main refugiumov. It Ч the ethnic center of residing and traditional wildlife management of small peoples udege and nanai. It Ч last stronghold of a untouched inundated jungle and the big files kedrachej. In 1992, after spot-checks of the GREEN PEACE and performance udegejtsev, to pool top Bikina have given the status zakaznika regional submission, and a question on its entering into the list of places of the World Heritage where it is already brought Central Sikhote Alin, it is considered now in UNESCO. The status the person of " an orehovo-trade zone ї average Bikina is confirmed with the State Duma. But, despite of it, woodcutters are torn to receive "kindness" on bringing down bikinskih woods, and the administration of edge secretly bears plans as it "kindly" give. Too big money stand up for the next certificate of wood vandalism. To rescue Bikin it is possible, only having allocated the grounds under reserve or national park. About it professionals-biologists and "green" all world shout, and it would be desirable to trust, that this shout do not remain shout scandalous in desert.

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